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Understanding Subnets Using CIDR Notation

Understanding Subnets Using CIDR Notation


Cyber threats have increased to a large extent. It is important to secure the networks to be safe from these cyber threats. The majority of today's networks are protected by firewalls and network security software. However, to configure firewalls properly, you need to know the incoming and outgoing rules that you can use with your firewall. 

Let's understand the basics of computer networks.

There are various classes of networks

InterNIC, the body that administers the Internet, assigns Internet addresses. These IP addresses are categorized into different groups. The Class A, B, C, D, and E. D and E types are rarely used by end-users. The default subnet mask for each address type is different. The first octet of an IP address tells us about the class of network. The Internet address ranges for Class A, B, and C, as well as an example address for each, are listed below.

For Class A networks, the default subnet mask is 255.0.0.0, with 0-127 as the first octet. The IP address 10.10.11.11 is part of the class A network. We can see the first octet is 10, which ranges from 1 to 126 both numbers inclusive.

The default subnet mask for Class B networks is 255.255.0.0, with the first octet of 128-191. The address 168.41.52.63 is a class B address. 172 is the first octet, which is between 128 and 191.

For Class C networks, the default subnet mask is 255.255.255.0, with the first octet of 192-223. The IP address 192.168.123.132 is within the range and hence part of the class C network. The initial octet is 192, and the remaining octets in IP range from 192 to 223.

The private networks use Class C type starting with IP 192.168.0.1. Configuring firewalls for security is very important. Most forewalls use CIDR Notation to define incoming and outgoing rules.

A collection of Internet protocol (IP) standards known as classless inter-domain routing (CIDR) is used to provide unique identifiers for networks and individual devices. Individual data packets can be transmitted to specific computers using IP addresses.

Let's suppose you're granted a 192.168.0.0/24 Class C subnet to support the entire network.

Host IP address availability table (Subnet Table)

Because there are various hosts around the organization, a broadcast network is the best option. In addition, it was planned that each department would have its own subnet. For IP routing, within the subnet inter-communication to connect departments and offer Internet access, a router with multiple interfaces(switches) will be used.

The closest subnets for 10 hosts are /29 and /28, according to the host IP address availability table. The /29 subnet size is 8, but we have 10 hosts in each subnet and this will insufficient. The smallest subnet size that would fit 10 hosts would be /28 with some (yet) unused IP addresses.

In /28, there are 16 IP addresses. Since the two IP addresses are already been allocated for network ID and broadcast addresses, there are 14 IP addresses left for hosts.

Because each department has 10 hosts, one /28 subnet would be allotted to each department.

The following subnet can then be assigned to each department.

1st Department: 192.168.0.0/28 (192.168.0.1 - 192.168.0.14)

2nd Department: 192.168.0.16/28 (192.168.0.17 - 192.168.0.30)

3rd Department: 192.168.0.32/28 (192.168.0.33 - 192.168.0.46)

The process of calculating a network's subnet mask to satisfy the specific needs of a certain number of hosts within the network is known as Variable-Length Subnet Masking (VLSM).

Subnetting a large network into smaller networks with a maximum host size the network can sustain should result in minimal to no wastage of IP addresses.

Without some form of method to facilitate communication across these smaller-size networks, there is no sense in building VLSM to reserve the IP address used. In other words, for inter-communication between networks or between devices in various networks, such as inter-communication between devices in the first, second, and third departments, some (IP) routing must be in place.

A network device that operates the gateway to contact the outside network is the router. To put it another way, this router device should be able to handle network traffic routing. Ideally, the gateway IP address will be assigned to the router for handling network traffic routing.

Each subnet requires a dedicated router interface to handle gateway activities since each subnet has its own gateway IP address. There are now four networks that must communicate with one another. The first three networks are the subnets that we have mapped to each department. The Internet is the last network. Each of these networks requires a specialized router interface to serve as a gateway for connecting to the outside network. In a network, this gateway IP is essentially another host within a network.

As a result, the gateway would be assigned one IP address from each of the above subnets.

Let's say then

1st Department gateway IP address: 192.168.0.14/28

2nd Department gateway IP address: 192.168.0.17/28

3rd Department gateway IP address: 192.168.0.37/28


There are 13 IP addresses left in each subnet now. All hosts within each department can use these 13 available IP addresses.

1st Department host IP addresses: from 192.168.0.1 to 192.168.0.13

2nd Department host IP addresses: from 192.168.0.18 to 192.168.0.30

3rd Department host IP addresses: from 192.168.0.33 to192.168.0.36 and from 192.168.0.38 to 192.168.0.46.

As mentioned earlier, the entire network will be managed by a single router. This router will have four separate interfaces called switches, each with routing capabilities. Each router interface may then handle each department's gateway IP address and connect to the Internet.

Switch #1 will manage the routing for the first department, Switch #2 will manage the routing for the second, and Switch #3 will manage routing for the third.

Switch #1:

IP address range: 192.168.0.1 - 192.168.0.14

Subnet Mask: /28 (or 255.255.255.240)

Gateway: 192.168.0.14


Switch #2:

IP address range: 192.168.0.17 - 192.168.0.30

Subnet Mask: /28 (or 255.255.255.240)

Gateway: 192.168.0.17


Switch #3:

IP address range: 192.168.0.33 - 192.168.0.46

Subnet Mask: /28 (or 255.255.255.240)

Gateway: 192.168.0.37


Basics of subnetting

Let's see at the first Department's hosts. One host will have the following.


192.168.0.2/28

Here is the detailed subnet information

IP Address : 192.168.0.2

Subnet Mask : /28 (255.255.255.240)

Number of IP address inside the subnet: 16

Number of IP address remaining for the host: 14

IP Address range : 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.0.15

Network ID: 192.168.0.0

Network Broadcast: 192.168.0.15

IP Address range available for host : 192.168.0.1 - 192.168.0.14

Gateway IP Address assigned in the subnet : 192.168.0.14

Available IP address range : 192.168.0.1 - 192.168.0.13


The table leads to this understanding.

* 192.168.0.0 is reserved for Network ID

* 192.168.0.15 is reserved for Network Broadcast

* 192.168.0.14 is reserved for gateway (the router, or more precisely, the router interface that serves as a gateway for hosts within the 192.168.0.0/28 network to communicate with other 192.168.0.x hosts and the Internet).

* 192.168.0.1 - 192.168.0.13 range is available for other PCs, printers, servers, and any other network device that requires to be connected to the network within the 1st Department.

* The server on the network can be given IP address 192.168.0.2 or any IP address falling within 192.168.0.1 - 192.168.0.13 range)

Subnet Mask: /28 (255.255.255.240)

Gateway: 192.168.0.14 (pointing to the router)


Other hosts in the 2nd and 3rd Departments are in a similar predicament.

2nd Department

192.168.0.28/28

IP Address : 192.168.0.28

Subnet Mask : /28 (255.255.255.240)

Number of IP address inside the subnet: 16

Number of IP address remaining for the host: 14

IP Address range : 192.168.0.16 - 192.168.0.31

Network ID: 192.168.0.16

Network Broadcast: 192.168.0.31

IP Address range available for host : 192.168.0.17 - 192.168.0.30

Gateway IP Address assigned in the subnet : 192.168.0.17

Available IP address range : 192.168.0.18 - 192.168.0.30


3rd Department

192.168.0.41/28

IP Address : 192.168.0.41

Subnet Mask : /28 (255.255.255.240)

Number of IP address inside the subnet: 16

Number of IP address remaining for the host: 14

IP Address range : 192.168.0.32 - 192.168.0.47

Network ID: 192.168.0.32

Network Broadcast: 192.168.0.47

IP Address range available for host : 192.168.0.33 - 192.168.0.46

Gateway IP Address assigned in the subnet : 192.168.0.37

Available IP address range : 192.168.0.33 - 192.168.0.36,

                             192.168.0.38 - 192.168.0.46


The network router will have the following IP address assignment on its interfaces.


1st interface

IP Address: 192.168.0.14

Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.240


2nd interface

IP Address: 192.168.0.17

Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.240


3rd interface

IP Address: 192.168.0.37

Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.240


Network Interface


The 1st interface of the router will act as the gateway for the hosts of the 1st Department, the 2nd interface will act as the gateway for the 2nd Department's hosts, and the 3rd interface will act as the gateway for the 3rd Department's hosts, respectively.

As previously stated, hosts from all departments must be able to communicate with hosts on the Internet. 192.168.0.0/28, 192.168.0.16/28, and 192.168.0.32/28 directly cannot communicate with any outside world hosts. The router must be able to connect to subnets outside of the 192.168.0.0/28, 192.168.0.16/28, and 192.168.0.32/28 ranges to connect to the outside world.

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Why Young People Have Heart Attacks: Is It Preventable?

We quite often hear news about the fit and healthy people who do regular workouts are losing their life because of a heart attack. Such things surprise us as we have all heard many times that regular exercising helps to maintain cardiovascular health. 

But why does this happen? Why do we see young people dying from sudden cardiac arrest? Is it preventable? 

Why do young people have heart attack


In the last 30 years, the cases of heart attack in young people under the age of 40 years have tripled. This is attributable to a rise in the number of risk factors. Nearly 40% of heart attacks occur in people under the age of 55, and 15-20% in people under the age of 40. People are also having larger and more severe heart attacks. Nearly 5% of heart attacks result in cardiac arrest, which leads to mortality. 


Why young people are having heart attacks and sudden cardiac arrest?

In recent studies conducted by American Heart Association on people aged 2 to 45 years having cardiac issues, it was discovered that in individuals with a known risk of Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) was encountered in the young population. Among arrhythmias, congenital abnormalities, and cardiomyopathies; Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) was the most commonly diagnosed in 53 percent of those aged 35 to 45 years and 16 percent of those aged 25 to 35 years. Men and women were both represented in the CHD group, which is both surprising and concerning.

Even among those aged 2 to 24, 13 percent had cardiovascular risk factors. Coronary artery calcification and atherosclerotic heart disease that was predicted by the existence of cardiovascular risk factors in childhood.

"The topic of heart-related ailment non-detection is a really severe issue," says Dr. Ashok Seth (Head of Cardiology Council of Fortis Group of Hospitals). "Even when people have 70 percent or more blockages in their arteries, one out of every four people reports no symptoms or merely vague ones like weariness. Three unsuspecting persons in their 30s were diagnosed with significant arterial blockages of more than 70% at our hospital last week" he explains. "One was there for a routine check, while the other two were being examined in advance of a different treatment. They all exercised regularly, and none of them had ever suffered heart-related symptoms like weariness or shortness of breath".

Another cause cited for the rise of heart attacks in youngsters is mostly due to changes in their lifestyles during the last two decades. Apart from smoking, diabetes and hypertension are significant risk factors connected to bad lifestyles and habits which we already know.

Apart from these causes, in present days there are multiple risk factors involved. Work pressure, late nights, and lack of sleep has become widespread; heart-healthy activity is declining, obesity is increasing; food habits have drastically shifted to eating out or cooking quick foods high in trans fats, which can cause damage to the heart. 

All of this contributes to increased stress levels, which are a leading cause of heart attacks. In addition, Pollution also has been linked to coronary artery damage and heart attacks, and pollution in major cities has gotten a lot worse in this decade.

According to American Heart Association, Schizophrenia has been linked to an increased risk of SCA. Schizophrenia is a dangerous psychiatric disorder in which patients have aberrant perceptions of reality. Schizophrenia can include hallucinations, delusions, and profoundly abnormal thoughts and behaviors. Psychiatric medicines have been shown to extend the QT interval and increase the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias, even at therapeutic doses. The link between psychiatric disorder, the central nervous system, and SCA, on the other hand, is likely to be significantly more complex, including more than just autonomic control of heart rate and rhythm.

As a key risk factor for heart disease, smoking ranks first, followed by high cholesterol, high blood pressure, physical inactivity, obesity, and diabetes. In fact, smoking is the leading cause of premature death in the United States. The person need not be smoking but even the secondhand smoke from someone else smoking can cause heart problems.

According to the CDC, roughly 34,000 nonsmokers die of heart disease each year as a result of secondhand cigarette smoke exposure. Smokers' exhaled smoke is known as secondhand smoke. Smoke from the burning end of a cigarette, cigar, or pipe is also included.



Why do fit and healthy people who exercise have heart attacks?

Heart-healthy exercises can improve cardiovascular fitness and lower the risk of heart attacks. Exercises such as brisk walking, swimming, cycling, etc. Any exercise beyond these simple activities gives no benefits to the heart and in some cases, it may even harm the heart. People have mistaken strenuous exercises as heart-healthy. Bodybuilding, weight lifting, muscle building or even exercising beyond the limits which the body can sustain might raise the likelihood of blood clotting, which can lead to a heart attack even with a little blockage. Furthermore, several steroid pills used in muscle building can be detrimental to the heart.

Even there are genetic causes that can lead to heart issues in young and healthy people. One of the most important risk factors for heart disease is family history, such as a mother or father who had heart attacks or died suddenly before the age of 60. Family history of hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol), hypertension (high blood pressure) and hypotension(low blood pressure), etc. may also be considered as risk factors.

The pandemic COVID-19 is closely linked to heart ailments even after you have recovered from the deadly infection. COVID-19 can harm the heart muscle and affect heart function. This can happen due to multiple factors. The coronavirus connects to angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptors on cardiac cells before entering them. High levels of inflammation circulating in the body can potentially cause heart damage. The inflammatory process that occurs while the body's immune system battles the virus can harm some healthy tissues, including the lungs and the heart.

Coronavirus infection affects the inner walls of veins and arteries, causing blood vessel inflammation, damage to extremely small capillaries, and blood clots, all of which can obstruct blood flow to the heart and other regions of the body.

When people recover from the coronavirus, they may have symptoms of POTS (postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome). 

POTS is a neurologic disorder that affects the composition of the neurological system that controls heart rhythm and blood flow, rather than a cardiac problem. When you get up, the syndrome might induce rapid heartbeats, which can cause brain fog, weariness, palpitations, lightheadedness, and other symptoms. 

Researchers are looking into the possibility of a link between POTS and heart issues.


Can Sudden Cardiac Arrest and Heart Attacks in young and fit people be preventable?

Yes. Following tips can help you prevent any potential problem with the heart.


Having Regular body checkups

In some cases, this can be treated if diagnosed at right time. After the age of 30, annual medical exams, including a TMT, becomes critical in people who have a higher risk of heart ailments. Those at high risk should also have a calcium CT scoring done by the age of 35 and every 5 years after that. This is also critical for young individuals who participate in severe sports, bodybuilding, extreme fitness routines and work in high-stress environments. All other young males in India who have no risk indicators should undergo a check-up by the age of 30 and then every 5 years after that. 

Cardiovascular Cascade genetic testing 

Cascade screening can save family members' lives in the event of a genetic cause. Cascade testing successfully identifies at-risk relatives who would benefit from early screening and medical intervention, perhaps leading to early diagnosis and illness prevention. In most cases, 25 percent to 50 percent of first-degree relatives, as well as a significant percentage of second and third-degree relatives, are likely to be impacted. As genetics and tailored therapy become more important, the cost of finding causal mutations should decrease.


Treating congenital heart defects

Congenital heart abnormalities follow people throughout their lives and predict coronary artery calcification and atherosclerotic heart disease. As a result, measures aimed at reducing the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents and young people may reduce the incidence of SCA. Furthermore, even in young children, nutritional and activity therapies are safe and effective.


Health healthy exercises

Exercising is important to keep the heart-healthy. In fact, just 45 minutes of brisk walking five times a week can help reduce weight, improve diabetes and cholesterol control, enhance fitness, create well-being, increase positivity, and cut the risk of heart attack by 25%. Strenuous exercise should be avoided.

Yoga and meditation have been shown to have a calming and relaxing effect on the mind, as well as a reduction in tension. It is critical to maintain a calm and serene mentality at all times and not to take work stress too seriously.


Avoid stress 

Stress and other environmental factors may play a role in the development of schizophrenia, according to new findings which have been linked to increased risk of SCA.

Avoiding stress can help in heart health. Chronic mental stress has been linked to the creation of toxic hormones that damage the inner lining of the heart arteries, resulting in blockages. Heart attacks can also be triggered by sudden intense emotional stress.


Managing COVID and its effects

If you have recently been infected by Coronavirus, it is very important to take care of yourself and look out for symptoms of heart attack warning signs such as shortness of breath, sudden and severe chest pain for more than 5 minutes, swelling in legs, heart palpitations, irregular or rapid pulse rate. Aspirin is commonly prescribed by doctors, in aftermath of Coronavirus infection to avoid the occurrence of blood clots.


Know CPR

According to American Heart Association, most SCA events occur in private residences where only the family members can provide immediate care such as CPR. It is suggested that family members should be trained in providing CPR in emergencies. This can help a lot and might probably save a life in some cases.


Lifestyle changes

Lifestyle changes such as healthy eating habits, keeping the body vitals in control, and avoiding smoking can help in preventing heart diseases. We must remember that heart disease prevention is critical in preventing heart attacks and that timely and regular doctor visits can save lives.


Keeping your weight in control

If you're overweight, your doctor will work with you to reduce weight and get your BMI back to a healthy range. Changing your diet and increasing your physical activity can assist in reducing body weight. Adults aged 40 to 70 who are overweight should have their blood glucose examined at least every three years, according to the US Preventive Services Task Force, as long as their findings are normal. If your blood glucose is abnormal, your healthcare practitioner may suggest behavioral counseling to help you eat better and exercise more.


Avoid smoking

According to the American Heart Association, quitting smoking cuts the risk of heart disease in half, as well as the chance of recurring heart attacks and death from heart disease. Many factors that contribute to a heart attack can be managed by stopping smoking, according to research. Atherosclerosis, blood clots, and irregular heart rhythms are among them.

Quitting smoking has to be a gradual process. Nicotine replacement products can help you quit smoking in some situations. Smokers can still get nicotine via nicotine replacement products to satisfy their nicotine cravings. Nicotine replacement products, on the other hand, do not contain the tars and harmful gases that cigarettes do.


To conclude, heart attacks are growing increasingly common among today's young people as a result of several variables such as lifestyle, food, stress, and lack of exercise. When you're over 30, getting a heart checkup once a year is a smart idea because it keeps you informed about your heart's condition. To lower the risk of a heart attack, it is preferable to live a healthy, active lifestyle. After all, we all want the ticker to tick as smoothly as possible for as long as possible.

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7 Must Have Lifestyle Habits To Be Successful In Life





We all want to do something in our life that will help to gain success. But why it is not easy to achieve success? We all try our best every time! Then why we don't get the expected result?

Even after laying more extra money in the business, why do many businessmen struggle to get their invested money back in the form of profit?

We all have heard about famous personalities like Steve Jobs, Mark Zuckerberg, Ratan Tata and we all are aware of the struggle that they have confronted in their life to reach where they are today. For some of us, they are our role models. Definitely, they have something in them which differentiates them from the rest of us. 

One thing that we can easily find common in all successful personalities and that we can learn is the importance of daily routine for healthy life.  They adopted healthy habits and healthy lifestyles that help them to promote self-development. 

Awareness of the healthy lifestyle habits and maintaining a healthy lifestyle not only helps you to get yourself to understand the impact of a healthy active lifestyle but it makes you work towards daily routine for a healthy life.

Here are 7 good lifestyle habits / healthy habits to follow every day that will help in making your day productive and can help you to be successful in life.

How To Create A Document On Google Docs And Share It With Others

How to create and share documents on google doc

This is a great tip and hence I thought I should share this with you. Many times it has happened to me that when I am away from my computer especially when I am traveling, I am required to share project proposals and reports with just my team or my clients. When this happens, you start to miss your word processing software. 

Your only way out is Google Docs. Here we will learn how we can use it.

You don't need to download any software on your computer to create and share text documents. You could use Google Docs right from your browser. However, if you are using a mobile device, you should have Google Docs App installed. The app is available for both Android and iPhone/iPad. Install it and we can proceed with the steps.

The advantage of using Google Docs is that numerous individuals may work simultaneously. You can see other people's changes as they are made, and every modification is automatically saved.


How To Create A Document On Google Docs And Share It With People Or Group?


Create a document on Google Docs and share it with people or groups on the web

First, we will see, how this can be done using your web browser.

If you have Google Docs App, you can Skip to Google Docs App


1. Type in docs.google.com/document in the browser address bar. You may be asked to sign in using your Google account.

Note: In some instances, when you are using the mobile web browser to access the Google Docs Website, if it is asking you to install the Google Docs app, you can switch your mobile browser to Desktop Site view.

2. Click New Document in the top left corner under "Start a new document."

Create New Google Doc

3.  The interface is simple with menus at the top. To insert the headings type @ and you will be presented with styles to edit the titles. It also allows you to insert numbered or bulleted lists. 

You could type your text and you would normally do. 

Insert Headings

4. You could use the toolbar at the top to edit, bold, italicize, underline or align the text. You could also adjust the paragraph spacing or change the font and the background color

Google Docs Toolbar

5. You can easily share files and folders with others and control who has access to them, including whether they can read, modify, or comment on them. To share the document, click the share button at the top right corner.

Share Document


Share Document

 

Type in the Google email address of the people, you would like to share the document with. 

Share Document with people

 Choose the type of access, enter your message, and click send.

Share with people or group


Or you could just click on the 'Change to anyone with link' before entering any email address and then click on the 'Copy link' button to get a link that you could share with anyone and give them access.

Share Document Using Link


That's all. You have created and shared Google Docs Document.


Create a document on Google Docs and share it with people or groups on the app

OK. Now we will see, how we can do this on Google Docs App.

If you don't have Google Docs App, you can Go Back to Google Docs Web


1. Open the App.

2. Tap on the create document button which is at the bottom right corner. Then tap on the 'New Document' option.

Next tap on the Untitled document at the top left corner to give your document a proper name.

Google Docs - Create New Document

3. The interface is simple with menus at the top. 

To insert the headings, tap on the formatting button (as shown in the screenshot below) and you will be presented with menus. Tap on Styles to edit the titles. It also allows you to insert numbered or bulleted lists. 

You could type your text and you would normally do.


Editing the Document on Google Docs App

4. You could use these options to edit, bold, italicize, underline or align the text. You could also adjust the paragraph spacing or change the font and the background color

Formatting Options - Google Docs App

There are other menus, that you can explore. It has all the features you are looking for in a word processor. Once done, tap on the tick at the top left.

5. You can easily share files and folders with others and control who has access to them, including whether they can read, modify, or comment on them. To share the document, tap the share button at the top right corner.

Share Button on Google Docs App

Type in the Google email address of the people, you would like to share the document with. 

Choose the type of access, enter your message, and tap on the Send button at the bottom right corner.

Or you could just tap on the 'Not shared' before entering any email address to get a link that you could share with anyone and give them access.

Tap on the Not Shared

Next click on Change

Get the link to your Document on Google Docs App


To get a link to share, tap on Restricted.

Tap on the arrow

Tap on the 'Anyone with the link'.

Tap on Anyone with the link

You can choose the type of access you want to give.

Selecting the type of access for the link

Tap on the Back button as shown below

Tap on the back button


Step 9: Tap on the 'Copy link' button (as shown below) to get a link that you could share with anyone and give them access.

Tap on the Link button

That's all. You have created and shared the document using the Google Docs App.

I would recommend using the Google Docs app for mobile devices because it allows you to easily edit your documents even if it is created using a different program such as Microsoft Word.

Great! I hope you now know how to use Google Docs on your web browser and your mobile device. 

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11 Important Principles Of Effective Communication To Feel Confident Everyday

Principles of Effective Communication


Effective communication strategies are key to our success. It is one of the important interpersonal skills required that help us to improve communication in our professional lives or in personal relationships.

Today, we will look at how we can stay ahead using a variety of communication techniques.

The following are 11 great communication principles which are also known as seven C's of effective communication and four S's of effective communication. 

Master these skills today, and you'll be able to use them for a long time!

To make communication effective and engaging, there are some guiding principles to be considered and followed. These principles are popularly known as the 7Cs of communication. Let's see them in detail.


1. Clarity

The idea or thought that the sender wishes to convey must be clear enough for the receiver to comprehend it. Clarity of thoughts and ideas improves the meaning of communication. 

If you are not clear in communicating your thought then the audience which receives the communication won't be clear either. The audience should be clear on the topic of conversation and what is expected from them.

For this purpose, you should consider the following points.

  • Avoid jargon and unclear terms.
  • Make sentences and paragraphs that are succinct and effective.
  • Excessive usage of infinitives should be avoided.
  • Wherever possible, include relevant examples, pictures, and visual aids.


2. Correct

The audience is greatly influenced by the accuracy of communication. Before sending any message, the sender must ensure that it has accurate information, is delivered on time, and is written correctly. Any error in the communication's subject matter can give the reader a wrong impression and lead to confusion.

Though they are usually small inaccuracies, they can have a significant influence on your professional reputation as well as the brand image of the organization you represent. Therefore. Before you send an email, double-check all of your spellings and prefixes, especially if it's going to a client or a vendor outside your organization.

To ensure that the correct information is transmitted to the recipients, keep the following points in mind.

  • Verify the veracity of the data, facts, and words.
  • The communication must be precise, correct, and timely.
  • From a grammatical and linguistic standpoint, double-check your message to ensure there are no errors in the message.
  • Send your message in the proper format.


3. Complete

For effective business communication, the accuracy of the facts is just as vital as clarity and correctness. The message should include all of the information that the audience requires. The communication should include a call to action so that the receiver also knows what is expected to do.

Communication Strategy


Incomplete communication might lead to a misinterpretation of the message by the receiver. Ensure that the following aspects are taken into account while considering the advantages of comprehensive communication.

  • It saves money because there is no extra charge for sending more messages if the conversation is complete.
  • A comprehensive communication leaves the receiver with no unanswered questions.
  • Complete communication aids recipients in making better decisions by providing them with all necessary information.
  • It can persuade the audience.


4. Concise

The reader's attention is effectively captured by the brevity in the expression of communication. Everything that is required in communication must be included, and everything that is not required must be excluded.

When you communicate efficiently, you stick to the point and keep it as short as possible. Your audience isn't interested in reading lengthy sentences when you can share your message in just a few lines.

Conciseness, on the other hand, must not come at the expense of the principles of completeness or the clarity, that we discussed earlier.

Consider the following to make sure your communication sounds concise.

  • Only include vital information and avoid duplication.
  • Make sure the message is well-organized.
  • Concise communication delivers your audience a succinct and important message in a few words.
  • The audience will find a concise message more appealing and understandable.


5. Concrete

When your message is specific, it is easier for your audience to understand exactly what you're trying to convey. There are plenty of details that are useful but not redundant, vivid facts, and laser-like focus. 

Instead of being ambiguous and generic, concreteness is being specific, definite, and vivid. The message must be precise or definite so that the receiver may simply read or hear it. The message should be delivered in a fair, open, and straightforward manner.

Use the below ideas to make your communication to the point.

  • Make use of precise data and numbers.
  • Use an active verb or an action verb.
  • Choose words that are bright, dynamic, and startling.
  • Tell your audience exactly what they want to say.
  • Irrelevant information should be avoided.


6. Courteous

Courteous communication is open, friendly, and truthful. There are no hidden insults or passive-aggressive tones in this conversation. You must know your reader's perspectives and understand their requirements. Every communication should be courteous so that the recipient feels valued and willingly performs what is requested of him or her.

Courtesy necessitates consideration and friendliness toward others. In a message, courtesy is that the message should reflect the sender's mood as well as respect the receiver. The courteous message is positive and directed towards the intended audience.

Here are the tips you should follow to be more courteous while communicating.

  • The sender of the message should be honest, prudent, polite, reflective, and enthusiastic.
  • Make use of phrases that demonstrate respect for the message's recipient.
  • Respond to messages as soon as possible.
  • Apologize sincerely for any omission or mistake and 'Thank' generously for a favor. 


7. Consideration

Consideration entails planning each communication with the recipient in mind. The sender should try to put himself in the receiver's shoes while encoding the message. The receiver's desires, issues, emotions, feelings, and probable reactions should all be taken into account. When composing a message, give the receiver's condition your top attention.

Consider the below points to empathize with your receiver of the communication.

  • Instead of the "I" or "We" viewpoint, use the "You" viewpoint.
  • Avoid using terms like 'you have failed to...' or 'you have failed to..' Demonstrate how the reader will benefit or be interested.
  • Place a strong emphasis on facts that are good and enjoyable.
  • Demonstrate a positive attitude toward your audience. Place a strong emphasis on "what is achievable."

Communication Techniques


The four S's of communication aid in the creation of good and efficient communication. These are essential for good and successful business communication to be established. Understanding the 4Ss is just as vital as knowing the 7Cs of communication. We'll look at the 4Ss of communication next.


8. Short

The term "shortness" refers to the ability to make a statement as succinct as possible. Avoid being overly verbose. This will aid in quick communication and comprehension, making it faster and more effective. Using a lot of high-sounding terms in a message will make the receiver spend a significant amount of time attempting to discern the true meaning of the message. Hence communication must be exact, short, and unambiguous.


9. Simplicity

Using simple words and concepts to explain what you are trying to convey helps in clarity in communication and your thought process. Usually, when you lack a clear understanding of the concept or are confused you tend to communicate in a confused way. When you are not clear the receiver will not be clear on what you are trying to communicate.

Use basic terms and straightforward notions to reveal clarity in the thought process.


10. Strength

Strength comes from being confident about what you are trying to convey to your audience. When there is strength in your message, it establishes credibility. There is more trust and communication becomes more purposeful.

The communication should not include statements that you do not believe in as a communicator because you may lose the trust of your audience and you will be asked to seek clarity first.


11. Sincerity

Sincerity is vital because sincere people know where they stand and may open up in discussion without fear of retaliation or betrayal. True communication cannot be disguised in deceptive inferences, with the purpose to distort the facts. Sincerity is the quality of honest behavior which comes from the heart.


Final Thoughts

All the above concepts clearly explain what effective communication should possess. Practically, communication skill is an important interpersonal skill that comes from being confident. Using the right words is also an important part of communication strategy. In addition, it is equally important to improve your speech and build your confidence in oral communication.



Influencing Life Lessons From Diwali Festival That You Must Learn

Diwali or in hindi known as Deepavali is India's most vibrant and significant festival which is celebrated across the country. Every resident inside the country looks forward to this joyous occasion.

What we learn from Diwali

Diwali is one of the sanctified festivals. There are many reasons to celebrate Diwali.  For some, it is the day when Goddess Laxmi was born. whereas another reason that makes people celebrate Deepawali is Krishna killed Narkasura who held girls hostage. Whereas, another major reason that makes that day to celebrate the return of Prince Rama back to his kingdom after spending 15 years of exile.

Though there are various reasons to consider this day as auspicious but leaving aside that, today we will tell you 8 messages that we get from the Diwali festival that can help you to change your thoughts and can help you to credit something better to this society. 

When we celebrate Diwali, we take it as a festival but apart from the celebration, many things can be considered as life lessons from Diwali. I have drawn 8 Important teachings from Diwali. Take a look:


1. Excitement

Now here is what am talking about is, when a few days are remaining for Diwali, we get excited to experience the joy of Diwali and we keep counting the days. 

What do we learn from this?

Just like how we wait for Diwali to come, the same way, no matter what is hidden in the next moment, we should be excited to live as it is. The time that gone from us will never come back. Hence we should enjoy the moment as it is. 

Not every day will be the same. Some days will be good. Whereas, some days you'll be facing problems, difficulties. 

But that doesn't mean you should get upset with it and spend the entire day with tensed atmosphere. Instead, you should cheer yourself to cope up with it. 

Here are some of the tips that can help you to cope up when something bad happens.

a) Let go of your grievances - talk to someone with whom you are comfortable and trustworthy. Releasing your difficulties by sharing with others will help you to feel better and then you will be able to get back on your track with more concentration and relaxation.

b) Console yourself by imagining something more worse could have happened - Life is always about good and bad incidents. If something bad has happened in your life, convince your mind to think that you could have been in more trouble if something worst than this would have happened.

c) Move on - If something doesn't give peace to your mind, move on. Forget the incident completely. Though sometimes moving on is not easy but learning to move on makes your mind stronger and tougher to face any situation in life.

d) Pray - Praying helps in healing your mind from the scars. Sometimes it is the belief in God that helps in making you feel better.

e) Watch movies or do what you love - Cooking, watching movies, going on the tour these are the leisure activities which are helpful when you are having a bad day.

These activities can help set your mood right and you get back on your track.

But, above all, we should adopt our thinking in such a way that if something good happens we should be able to enjoy and if something bad has happened then we should learn from the moment. We should not let it affect the future and be ready to face the next day with the same level of energy and excitement.


2. Remove Darkness

During Diwali time, we light Diyas.

Though, this custom was started to welcome Lord Ram when he returned back to his kingdom. But the real concept behind this is to diminish darkness and enlighten yourself with positivity and remove darkness from your within.

Our thoughts are made from our day-to-day experiences. And our actions are from our thoughts. In short, what we do daily is totally controlled by our thoughts. So, if we want to prosper in our life, achieve what we always wished for, then we will have to remove the negativity from our mind.

Reading books, watching videos of successful personalities, watching interviews, life stories can help in gathering positive thoughts in your mind.


3. Make bonds stronger


Diwali with friends and family

On the occasion of Diwali, we share sweets with our neighbors, relatives and friends, people google diwali for messages to send their beloved,exchange diwali greetings which gives glows on the face and feeling of getting the bond stronger.

Same way, If we carry a friendly, caring nature lifelong, this world will be the best place to stay.

Helping each other in need is said to be the symbol of humanity. 

If every one of us believes in offering help to others irrespective of religion, caste, there will be no place for hate. Peace and love will prevail.


4. Performing rituals

One of the major parts of Diwali is performing rituals/puja.

When we do puja or rituals, we ask for prosperity and blessings to keep us away from problems. Same way, to keep ourself away from wrong doing, we should keep ourself away from bad habit, wrong thinking and away from people who are associated into wrong doing. Our life should be filled with motivation to achieve our goals and get success.


5. Cleaning the house and decorating

It is common to see people cleaning their house and surrounding few days before Diwali. We buy colourful diya and decorate our house by purchasing sky lamp for Diwali.

What we can take note from this is, cleanliness and hygiene is necessity. Cleaning the house and hygiene helps us stay healthy. We should make hygiene a habit to stay fit and healthy.

Personal hygiene includes hand washing, bathing, wearing washed clean clothes.

Same way, keeping your house clean and mopping the floor every day will prevent any germs to be on the floor. It is a must to keep the floor clean when you have a baby in the house.

Giving importance to hygiene in daily life will help to maintain a healthy lifestyle and in today's time where Covid 19 is making people ill, maintaining hygienic lifestyle is a must.


6. Being tolerant

When God Rama was directed to leave the kingdom and exile for 15 years, he silently obeyed to his father's orders. Many tried arguing but he smiled and left the luxurious living along with his wife Sita and brother Laxman. He faced many hurdles in the 15 years journey but the problems and difficulties couldn't shake him. It is his patience that rewarded him to be calm and wait for his exile to get over.

To define patience, it is a valuable life skill that helps to remain patient means keeping calm and focused even when waiting is difficult. 

Every problem comes to an end. No matter how much time it will take, the struggle you are going through will come to an end. We all know, nothing lasts forever. So, if you know that the path you are on is correct then keep going without thinking about the end of the suffering. Hence, what we can learn is adopting the skill of patience in daily life will help us to not get frustrated and control our anger. 


7. Good will always defeat evil in the end

Diwali represents the triumph of good over evil. Diwali commemorates the day when Lord Rama returned to Ayodhya after a fourteen-year exile. Lord Rama returned with his wife Sita and Hanuman after slaying Ravana on this day. In Hindu mythology, Ravana is the multi-headed demon king of Lanka. Ravana was a demon king who had abducted Sita and in the end, got destroyed by Lord Rama.

What we can take away from this is, no matter how powerful the evil is but ultimately it is Truth or Good is that will win. And no matter how weak you feel the "Good" is. It will always find its way to shine out from the crowd. 

We all have experienced something in our life that we can connect here. Shortcuts to achieve goal has become one of the trends. We get tempted to take shortcuts in order to reach our goal in less time but we face a lot of problems and end up facing failure. In short, long way may take lot of time for you to rich goal but it ensures that you will attain your goal. Another example is, often in our daily life evil things attracts us more and we end up getting in their nest and ultimately getting failed. Hence, when you get two paths to get to your goal, always take the one that is valid and justifiable.


8. We make new purchases. It's a remark about starting a new day on a clean slate.

Diwali is another name for making a huge shopping. Many companies promote their products online during Diwali by attracting it's customers by giving diwali gift hampers online. We shop for new clothing, utensils, and many other goods. It is considered as auspicious day to make a new start of the year. Infact, many shop owners make a fresh start of their books of accounts.

This we can adopt in our life and we can learn that no matter what happens in our life. No matter how many failures we have faced in our life, it is never too late to make a fresh start in your life.  All you will have to keep in mind is it's your life and it is you who will decide for yourself. So, if you feel you should start everything again, go ahead with your vibes.



Conclusion

Diwali celebration


Happiness is often clouded by negativity and insecurity. Festivals help us to forget our stress, troubles and appreciate the pleasant aspects of life, even if only for a few days. 

The most important message of Deepawali festival  is it encourages people to share love, joy and celebrate unity. With that if we think deeply about this festivals, there are always something or the other that can be learned from, and adopting them will not only make us good human but also credit in creating unity in society. 

Happy Deepawali 2021!!!.







A Story Of A Man Who Had Never Give Up Attitude - Thomas Edison

Thomas Alva Edison Biography


The great scientist of the 19th century whose positive thinking changed the world. According to Thomas Edison, Our biggest weakness is giving up. The simplest way to achieve success is to try once again and keep trying. 

Today, everyone knows Thomas Alva Edison as a great scientist. During his lifetime, he made many inventions such as the electric bulb, the machine which worked on steam, he turned it into the machine that used electric power. The gramophone is also an invention of Thomas Edison. Apart from this, Thomas Edison surprised the world by making many inventions. He made a world record by making 1093 inventions in his entire lifetime. 

Making so many inventions is just one aspect of his life. Today, we will know about his exemplary positive thinking. If we adopt his ideas then no one can stop us from being successful. 


His early life

Thomas Alva Edison was born in America in 1847. Thomas Edison was the youngest of seven brothers and sisters to father Samuel Edison and mother Nancy Eliot. When Edison was seven years old, his family relocated to Port Huron, Michigan.

When Thomas Edison was 2 years old, his parents got him admitted to a school. But after a few days, the parents started getting complaints from the school. He used to ask such questions to his teachers that they were not having any answers. His questions were such that if the birds can fly in the air then why can't a man. 

He was very curious since childhood. He was trying to find a reason behind everything. Whatever he knew or thought, he used to start his experiments on that subject. Because of this, people used to call him a retard. But he kept himself busy in his experiments without caring about what the people thought. 

He once heard from people that the bird ate worms and that birds started flying. He deduced that if man ate worms, he would be able to fly. Thomas gathered some worms and beetles and ground them into a paste. He made his friend drink the solution after mixing water into the paste. Due to severe stomach ache, she began to swirl on the ground. She somehow survived. But this brought Edison's idea of flying to a screeching halt. This made people angry and he was severely beaten up, criticized.

Edison's official education was limited as a child, with only a few months of schooling.

One day when he came back home from school and handed his mother a letter given by his teacher. Edison asked - "Mom, my teacher gave me this letter with the instruction that only you should read it. Could you please read what is written in the letter?"

"Your boy is a genius," she read aloud, her eyes welling up with tears. This school is too small for him, and there aren't enough qualified teachers to train him. Please teach him on your own."

His mother became so furious that she decided to take him out of school and tutor him at home.

His mother taught him elementary science. By which he learned to do chemistry experiments at home. 

Edison made his first laboratory at home at the age of 10. But after a few days, his mother got angry with his new experiments and she threw all his instruments out. 


In search of professional success

In dire need of money to open his new laboratory, Edison started selling tickets and newspapers to railway passengers.

At the age of only 15, Thomas Edison started printing and publishing his newspaper "Grand Trunk Herald" and started selling it himself on a moving train and after working all day, he used to spend the rest of the time in the laboratory. 

Edison had also built his own laboratory temporarily in an empty train compartment. 

Once when he was doing a chemical experiment, a substance called Phosphorus, which had been stored on the upper shelf, fell and caught fire. The people in the train were terrified. The train guard arrived shortly after and inquired about the event.

The fire was put out, but the security guard got angry and slapped Edison many times and pulled him by his ear, and threw him out of the train. 

After that, he threw Thomas's laboratory, shop, newspapers, and other items out of the train one by one.

Thomas's whole collection of equipment and instruments was thrown outside. Furthermore, the guard's slaps hurt Thomas's left ear, making him much deafer than before.

After this incident, Edison could not hear properly and gradually his hearing ability began to decline. 

Edison was so positive thinking that he felt that from now on he would not have to hear useless things and he would focus more on his work.  

Later, Thomas started working as a telegrapher in railways. He was spending the rest of the time in his laboratory.


Phase of Success

With time, despite the ups and downs in his life, Thomas Alva Edison became a great scientist and started inventing.

Thomas Alva Edison


Edison's first invention was his stock printer which Edison was successful in selling. There is an interesting story associated with it. when Edison realized that his invention cost US$5,000 he was ready to sell it for $3000. But later it was sold for $40,000. 

In today's date, its value is about $750,000. During that time it was a huge sum of money someone would earn. Edison's journey to success had started. He started inventing one thing after the other. the biggest invention he made is the invention of the electric bulb.

It was very difficult journey to success. Before achieving success, Thomas Alva Edison failed more than 10,000 times in making the electric bulb, but he was not disappointed. With his hard work and struggle, he invented the bulb at the age of about 32 and on 21 October 1883, the first bulb was glowing all day. 

Thousands of people from far and wide started coming to see it because for the people it was nothing less than a miracle and when Edison was asked, how did you keep working without giving up even after falling more than 10000 times? "I have not been unsuccessful.", he stated. "But I have discovered 10,000 ways that don't work". He set an example for the entire humanity to never give up and move forward until victory is achieved.


Feeling of accomplishment

One day when Edison was looking at his old memorabilia in his leisure time, he found an old letter in the corner of a cupboard. That was the same letter which was given by the teacher to his mother which brought tears to her eyes. She had read that Edison is smart and genius. 

When Edison was reading the letter, his mother was longer in this world. Edison had also become a very big and great scientist and on getting such an old letter, he quickly wondered what else has been written about him. Edison eagerly opened it and read it, but after reading what was written in it, Edison started crying. It was written that -"Your son is mentality ill. We are no longer allowing him to attend our school. He's expelled".

Edison was in deep feelings. In his diary, he wrote: “Thomas A. Edison had a mental deficiency whose mother turned him into a genius of the Century.” 

That is a lovely narrative that contains some truth. What really happened, according to Edison. He overheard a teacher informing the principal that Edison was 'addled,' that he was disoriented, and that keeping him in school was no longer worthwhile.

He burst out crying and ran home to tell his mother what had happened.

Then I realized what a good mother is. She informed the teacher that he didn't understand what he was talking about, that I was smarter than he was, and other such things. In fact, she was the most enthusiastic champion a boy had ever had, and Edison had resolved right then and there that he would prove himself worthy of her trust.


Final journey

Everyone will have to leave this world one day and this is the universal truth. This great scientist Thomas Alva Edison left the world on October 18, 1931, and before leaving this world, he enlightened everyone. 

Even during his last moments he said - "Everything there is very beautiful there". He was a person with an exemplary positive mindset. He never gave up, believed in himself and he never believed that he failed. 

He never gave up in his entire life and believed in himself. He used to experiment for four or five days without sleep. There was no clock in his laboratory which allowed him to work without any time limits. 

He often used to say that he never worked for a single day in his life. All that he did was just entertainment. But we all know that in his entertainment he left so many things for this world. 

On his death, America's light was turned off for one whole day. 


Conclusion of the story

What we learned from Thomas Edison is that we should never give up whatever be the problems. It is always worth trying one more time till you succeed. Have a great day! 



10 Things That Happen When You Stop Working Out

It was in the early months of 2020 when almost every country around the globe imposed total lockdown due to the spread of deadly Covid-19 virus. This created a lot of confusion in public. After all, it was for the first time that each citizen from every country had experienced something like total lockdown in their nation. 

Lack of exercise


For the safety of the people, the government had requested their citizens to be at home and avoid going out. Though this decision was taken to save people's lives but staying at home for long months led people who were hitting at the gym daily to take a break for months. This created a tremendous impact on their body. 

However, this is not just for the people who had to leave gym due to the surge of Covid-19 but any person who takes a break from their workouts for weeks will experience its effects on their body and  almost every organ of their body. Keep reading below to know more.

How to Find Your Dream Job Online Using Google Search Operators 2021

In the last post about Google search tips and tricks, we learned about how you can use Google search tips to quickly find the information you want. We would use the same Google search tricks to search for jobs that you can apply for. Keep reading for advanced googling tricks for searching jobs.

How to Find Your Dream Job Online Using Google Search Operators


Why use Google to find jobs?

If the firms you're interested in are regularly posting vacancies on LinkedIn and Glassdoor, these are terrific sites to look for work. But what about organizations who just advertise job openings only on their websites or use less well-known job boards?

Google also has its own platform - Google for jobs, where it aggregates job listings posted on various sites across the internet. Google for jobs would have been an ideal solution to the problem but it does not show you all the jobs. 

To feature the jobs on Google for jobs, the employers are required to create a structured mark-up for their job listings. If the structured markup is created, then it's great!. Otherwise, the job listing would not even be seen by anyone.

Google for Jobs

There is only one way to find jobs advertised anywhere on the internet, and that is to use Google Search Operators. You'll spend more time combing through results if you only search for a job title than if you scan every job board that exists.

What to do instead is to learn how to use Google search operators to get exactly what you're looking for—the ideal job openings. Yes, and who knows it might be the dream job you were looking for. So let's start with googling tips for searching for jobs.


How to use Google search operators to find your dream job?

Normally, when you search for any job, what would you type in Google search? You might type 'Online jobs'.

Google Search Operators

Because Google can't tell which online jobs you're looking for, it offers a mix of results that it thinks will satisfy the entire term.

When you type that query into Google, it recognizes that you're seeking results that contain the phrases "online" and "jobs." Other aspects are taken into account as well, such as location, previous search activity, and what other people are looking for when they search for the same phrase, and all of this information is combined to provide relevant results.

Although it is a smart and excellent system, it does have limitations. It can't be flawless because the term 'online jobs' can refer to a variety of requirements such as: 

  • Show me all of the outcomes for all of the online jobs.
  • Show me results for online jobs in my area.
  • Show me, job boards, where I can look for online jobs.
  • Show me jobs that involve online marketing
You might be required to add a few more words to your search query to describe your requirements but the results obtained may not be an exact match for your requirement. 

To exactly find out what you want, you will have to use Google search operators.

Before you use Google search operators, we need to understand our query and exactly what we are looking for.

There are many search operators. Out of these all, we will use a few ones which will specifically help us to look for jobs.


Enclose our query within the quotation marks

Since our search query will at least have two words and we do not want Google to search each word individually, we will enclose our query within the quotation marks. This will tell Google to look for an exact phrase in web pages. Our search query would look like below.

Google Search Operators


Include or exclude words using plus and minus operator

Let's say your previous job search yielded a slew of technical online job openings. By adding a minus sign to your search, you may instruct Google to ignore any results that contain the word technical.

Google Search Operators


Use OR to search for multiple queries at once

To search for one thing or the other, use the OR operator. Assume you're looking for a job as an online marketing job or an online copywriting job. To notify Google that you want to view results for either of those terms, use the OR operator.

Google Search Operators


Group terms using parenthesis

Some companies use the terms "writer," "copywriter," and "content-writer" to mean the same thing. So to cover all these variations we can use parenthesis. By putting them in parenthesis, you may tell Google to look for any of the three. The following example instructs Google to search for a marketing writer, marketing content writer, and/or marketing copywriter. You can combine multiple searches into one this way with OR Operator.

Google Search Operators


Only show results with search phrases in the page title by using the intitle: operator. 

The page title for most job postings will be the title of the individual job. Limit the search to pages that only utilize search terms in the title—not in the body text—by using the intitle: operator. Also, keep in mind that the intitle: operator only affects the first word after it. Include multiple intitle: operators to search for multiple terms.

Google Search Operators


To search for numerous terms in a page title, use the allintitle: operator

Instead of using the intitle: operator before each word, use the allintitle: operator to tell Google to search for numerous terms in the title. When using multiple search operators in a single query, keep in mind that the allintitle: operator will pull everything that appears behind it.

Google Search Operators


To find a single word in a post's body content, use the intext: operator

A responsibilities or requirements header appears on many job postings. Use the intext: operator to limit your search to results that contain one of those words in the body of the content. Search for online marketing with intext:requirements to see just results that contain the terms online and marketing anywhere in the body text, as well as requirements.

Google Search Operators


To search for multiple terms in a page's body text, use the allintext: operator

The allintitle: operator instructs Google to only display results with body text that includes all of the search terms listed. To discover results for online marketing with job requirements in the body text, do the search online marketing with allintext:job requirements.

Google Search Operators


To find results only on a specific website, use the site: operator

This is helpful when looking for work on websites with hundreds or thousands of job postings. If you prefer to use Google's search functionality on jobs that are on LinkedIn, Glassdoor, Freelancer, or any other major job board, you can use the site: operator to look for posts on those specific sites.

Google Search Operators


Other techniques for narrowing your searches

Remember that the formatting of each search operator is critical. Google recognizes the OR command only when both letters are capitalized. When it comes to site: operator, it only recognizes it if there is no space between the operator and what comes after it.

You might also use the OR operator in conjunction with the site operator. This query instructs Google to only return results from LinkedIn and Glassdoor. Add extra OR and site: operators for each additional job board you wish to examine, then repeat the process for as many sites as you want to check.

Google Search Operators


Instead of scanning the entire web, you may browse for jobs in the industry. If you're not sure what firms you want to work for, use the related: operator to find companies that are similar to the ones you already like.

Google Search Operators

You can also use a site operator when searching for government jobs. For this purpose, you should enter search query then a space followed by site:*.gov operator. The asterisk tells Google to autofill that portion with its own words.

Google Search Operators


This search would only return results from any sites with .gov TLDs, which makes finding employment on government websites much easier.


Build a single line search query

Let us now combine the operator and build a powerful single-line search query to get all the results that we are looking for.

Begin with a broad search—whatever term you would normally use to look for jobs on Google. The results you get will tell you which operators you need to make your query more specific when searching for a job on Google. Let's look up the same term "copywriter jobs" as an example. This will give us all the results where it has the "copywriter jobs" phrase mentioned.

Search Query

After you've completed your initial search, use the Tools menu to narrow down your results to only those that have been published recently. Select the arrow next to Any time and choose the most relevant timeframe by clicking Tools. Past 24 hours or Past week is relevant for this purpose.

Search Query


Now if we want to exclude freelancer jobs, assuming we're seeking full-time work. To tell Google not to show search results from upwork.com which has mainly freelance work, we may use the exclude (-) and site: operator or we may use exclude (-) with freelance keyword.

Search Query

OR

Search Query


Now we no longer see freelance jobs as the top result. But we may want to have the job title mentioned in the title. We may further refine the results by using the intitle: operator and utilizing quote marks to force an exact match.

Search Query


The displayed results are now exactly what we're looking for. In addition, our initial search yielded approximately millions of search results, whereas our last yielded less than 10 pages of results.

However, because our final search was somewhat limited, we might want to add a bit more flexibility to the query to extend the search and view more results

It's a really tough criterion to force an identical match for a copywriter. Instead, we can group some relevant terms with parentheses and extend the search to include vacancies that don't utilize that same phrase.

Search Query


This instructs Google to show results with the words "online" or "digital" and "copywriter" in the title.

This search yields a lot of results, most of which are for jobs that a copywriter could be interested in. Probably we should be experimenting with different search operator combinations to get the exact results as per personal requirements.

Finally, because most people don't search this way, Google might think you're a robot while you're playing with operators. If it does, proceed with your search after completing the CAPTCHA exercise to show you're human.

Save the exact search term used and repeat your search every day/week once you've found a combination of search operators that produces the best results.

Remember to filter results by date to see only things that have been published since the last time you looked, and you'll find brand new jobs that are extremely relevant to your aims and interests every time you look.

Hope this information helps you in your job search. All the best.


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